Stewardship investments focus on Government programs aimed at providing long-term benefits by improving the Nationís productivity and enhancing economic growth. These investments can be provided through direct Federal spending or grants to State and local governments for certain education and training programs, research and development, and federally financed but not federally owned property, such as bridges and roads. When incurred, these investments are included as expenses in determining the net cost of operations. Stewardship investments for the current year and for the immediately preceding 4 years are shown below in Table 11.
|(In billions of dollars)||Fiscal Year 2012||Fiscal Year 2011||Fiscal Year 2010||Fiscal Year 2009||Fiscal Year 2008|
|Investments in non-Federal physical property||68.1||69.9||66.7||65.1||57.8|
|Investments in human capital||87.1||91.9||122.3||60.3||77.2|
|Research and development:|
|Investments in basic research||34.2||35.7||31.5||27.4||27.6|
|Investments in applied research||29.1||28.8||26.2||19.1||21.4|
|Investments in development||67.0||71.7||77.3||101.0||79.2|