The Government runs several programs that invest in human capital. Those investments go toward increasing and maintaining a healthy economy by educating and training the general public. Costs do not include training expenses for Federal workers.
Education, VA, and DOL had $61.9 billion (71 percent), 12.2 billion (14 percent), and $6.7 billion (8 percent), respectively, of the total human capital investments in fiscal year 2012 as shown in Table 11. In comparison over the past 5 years, Education had an increase in human capital investments in fiscal years 2008 and 2010, due to an increase in the net cost for the Federal Family Education Loan, Direct Loan, Grant Programs, and Other Programs, including the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; while VA increased in fiscal years 2009 through 2012 due to implementation of the Post 9/11 GI Bill. Education administers a wide variety of programs related to general public education and training programs that are intended to increase or maintain national economic productive capacity. The Office of Federal Student Aid administers need-based financial assistance programs for students pursuing postsecondary education and makes available Federal grants, direct loans, and work-study funding to eligible undergraduate and graduate students.
The significant human capital programs administered by DOL relate to grants for job training and employment programs. The significant human capital programs administered by VA also relate to grants for job training and rehabilitation programs for veterans.