2012   Financial Report of the United States Government

Notes to the Financial Statements

Note 16. Environmental and Disposal Liabilities

Environmental and Disposal Liabilities as of September 30, 2012, and 2011
(In billions of dollars)
Department of Energy:
Environmental and Disposal Liabilities 268.4 250.6
Department of Defense:
Environmental Restoration 28.4 29.4
Disposal of Weapon Systems Program 24.5 24.9
Environmental Corrective Other 5.4 5.7
Base Realignment and Closure 4.3 4.8
   Total Department of Defense 62.6 64.8
All other agencies 8.0 8.7
   Total environmental and disposal liabilities 339.0 324.1

During World War II and the Cold War, DOE (or predecessor agencies) developed a massive industrial complex to research, produce, and test nuclear weapons. This included nuclear reactors, chemical-processing buildings, metal machining plants, laboratories, and maintenance facilities that manufactured tens of thousands of nuclear warheads and conducted more than one thousand nuclear tests.

At all sites where these activities took place, some environmental contamination occurred. This contamination was caused by the production, storage, and use of radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals, which resulted in contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater. The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production also includes thousands of contaminated buildings and large volumes of waste and special nuclear materials requiring treatment, stabilization, and disposal.

Estimated cleanup costs at sites for which there are no current feasible remediation approaches, such as the Nevada nuclear test site, are excluded from the estimates, although applicable stewardship and monitoring costs for these sites are included. DOE has not been required through regulation to establish remediation activities for these sites.

Estimating DOE's environmental cleanup liability requires making assumptions about future activities and is inherently uncertain. The future course of DOE's environmental cleanup and disposal will depend on a number of fundamental technical and policy choices, many of which have not been made. The sites and facilities could be restored to a condition suitable for any desirable use, or could be restored to a point where they pose no near-term health risks. Achieving the former conditions would have a higher cost, but may or may not, warrant the costs, or be legally required. The environmental liability estimates include contingency estimates intended to account for the uncertainties associated with the technical cleanup scope of the program.

DOE's environmental and disposal liabilities estimates are dependent on annual funding levels and achievement of work as scheduled. Congressional appropriations at lower than anticipated levels or unplanned delays in project completion would cause increases in life-cycle costs.

DOE's environmental and disposal liabilities also include the estimated cleanup and post-closure responsibilities, including surveillance and monitoring activities, soil and groundwater remediation, and disposition of excess material for sites. The Department is responsible for the post-closure activities at many of the closure sites as well as other sites. The costs for these post-closure activities are estimated for a period of 75 years after the balance sheet date, i.e., through 2087 in fiscal year 2012 and through 2086 in fiscal year 2011. While some post-cleanup monitoring and other long-term stewardship activities post 2087 are included in the liability, there are others the Department expects to continue beyond 2087 for which the costs cannot reasonably be estimated.

A portion of DOE's environmental and disposal liabilities at various field sites includes anticipated costs for facilities managed by DOE's ongoing program operations which will ultimately require stabilization, deactivation and decommissioning. The estimate is largely based upon a cost-estimating model. Site specific estimates are used in lieu of the cost-estimating model, when available. Cost estimates for ongoing program facilities are updated each year. For facilities newly contaminated since fiscal year 1997, cleanup costs allocated to future periods and not included in environmental and disposal liabilities amounted to $808.0 million and $920.0 million for fiscal years 2012 and 2011, respectively.

Please refer to the financial statements of the DOE for significant detailed information regarding DOE's environmental and disposal liabilities, including cleanup costs.

DOD follows the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other applicable Federal or State laws to clean up contamination. The CERCLA and RCRA require the DOD to clean up contamination in coordination with regulatory agencies, current owners of property damaged by the Department, and third parties that have a partial responsibility for the environmental restoration. Failure to comply with agreements and legal mandates puts the DOD at risk of incurring fines and penalties.

DOD must restore active installations, installations affected by base realignment and closure, and other areas formerly used as Defense sites. DOD also bears responsibility for disposal of chemical weapons and environmental costs associated with the disposal of weapons systems (primarily nuclear powered aircraft carriers and submarines).

DOD uses engineering estimates and independently validated models to estimate environmental costs. The engineering estimates are used after obtaining extensive data during the remedial investigation/feasibility phase of the environmental project.

For general PP&E placed into service after September 30, 1997, DOD expenses associated environmental costs systematically over the life of the asset using two methods: physical capacity for operating landfills and life expectancy in years for all other assets. The Department expenses the full cost to clean up contamination for stewardship property, plant, and equipment at the time the asset is placed into service. DOD has expensed the costs for cleanup associated with general property, plant, and equipment placed into service before October 1, 1997, except for costs intended to be recovered through user charges; for those costs, DOD has expensed cleanup costs associated with that portion of the asset life that has passed since it was placed into service. DOD systematically recognizes the remaining cost over the remaining life of the asset. The unrecognized portion of the cleanup cost associated with general property, plant, and equipment is $3.2 billion and $2.9 billion for fiscal years 2012 and 2011, respectively. Not all components of DOD are able to compile the necessary information for this disclosure, thus the amount reported may not accurately reflect DOD's total unrecognized costs associated with general property, plant, and equipment. DOD is implementing procedures to address these deficiencies.

DOD is unable to estimate and report a liability for environmental restoration and corrective action for buried chemical munitions and agents, because the extent of the buried chemical munitions and agents is unknown at this time. DOD is also unable to provide a complete estimate for the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. DOD has ongoing studies and will update its estimate as additional liabilities are identified. DOD has the potential to incur costs for restoration initiatives in conjunction with returning overseas Defense facilities to host nations. However, DOD is unable to provide a reasonable estimate at this time because the extent of required restoration is unknown.

Please refer to the financial statements of the DOD for further detailed information regarding DOD's environmental and disposal liabilities, including cleanup costs.

Last Updated:  February 27, 2013